The U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and commercial fishermen have cooperated in seeking ways to reduce dolphin mortality. Research into dolphin behavior helped in the design of new netting procedures that trapped far fewer dolphins. The attempt to reduce dolphin mortality illustrates cooperation among fishermen, conservationists, and government agencies and indicates the role of scientific research in managing renewable resources.
Lions and other great cats exist in these parks as isolated populations, no longer able to roam completely freely and to mix over large areas. Other examples are islands of uncut forests left by logging operations, and oceanic islands, where intense fishing has isolated parts of fish populations. A small city park between buildings may be an island for trees and squirrels. At the other extreme, even a large national park is an ecological island.
How large must an ecological island be to ensure the survival of a species? For example, a preserve was set aside in India in an attempt to reintroduce the Indian lion into an area where it had been eliminated by hunting and by changing patterns of land use. In 1957, a male and two females were introduced into a 95 km2 (36 mi2 ) preserve in the Chakia forest, known as the Chandraprabha Sanctuary.