The climate in Greece’s coastal areas 2,500 years ago was characterized by warm summers and cool winters, much as it is today. To warm their homes in winter, the Greeks used small, charcoal-burning heaters that were not very efficient. Since charcoal is produced from burning wood, wood was their primary source of energy, as it is today for half the world’s people.
By the 5th century B.C., fuel shortages had become common, and much of the forested land in many parts of Greece was depleted of firewood. Olive groves became sources of fuel; olive wood was turned into charcoal for burning, reducing a valuable resource. By the 4th century B.C., the city of Athens had banned the use of olive wood for fuel. For new homes, the answer is to design and construct homes that require less energy for comfortable living.
For example, we can design buildings to take advantage of passive solar potential, as did the early Greeks and Romans and the Native American cliff dwellers. Windows and overhanging structures can be positioned so that the overhangs shade the windows from solar energy in summer, thereby keeping the house cool, while allowing winter sun to penetrate the windows and warm the house.